The SNP Peek series brings you concise, up-to-date information on genetic variations known as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), which affect a significant percentage of patients. The SNPs featured in this series are clinically relevant, nutritionally actionable and validated by published research. Featuring one SNP at a time, the series will educate readers about prevalence, important research findings, targeted nutritional supplements and monitoring.‡
To apply this information in practice quickly and easily, visit PureGenomics.com.
SNP PEEK DRD2 (Dopamine D2 receptor) C957T (rs6277)
The DRD2 gene encodes for dopamine receptor D2, one of five dopamine receptor subtypes expressed in high concentrations in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene may influence dopamine signaling and, in turn, short-term memory performance.1-3
Who is Affected?
Association studies have been performed predominantly on Caucasian men and women of European descent. Preliminary evidence indicates that age may augment the significance of the C957T SNP, potentially due to an age-related decline in dopamine levels.2, 4-6
The C957T polymorphism may affect short-term memory performance.5-6
Key Research Findings:
- The C/C genotype was associated with better episodic memory, as measured by the backward serial recall scores, in a study of 1,288 healthy adults.2
- In a study of 236 healthy adults, subjects with the C/C genotype reported being more likely to enter into a state of “flow” or deep concentration, compared to subjects with the T/T genotype.5
- After supplementation with tyrosine, subjects with the T/T genotype saw a greater improvement in short-term memory test scores compared to subjects with the C/C genotype.4‡
Diet & Lifestyle Recommendations‡
Consume a diet high in protein, fiber, whole grains, vegetables and fruits to support general brain health. Emphasize lean meats such as poultry, eggs and fish, which provide a rich source of amino acid precursors for dopamine and other neurotransmitter synthesis.
Pure Encapsulations® Products:
- l-Tyrosine provides the free form amino acid tyrosine, a precursor required for the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters: l-dopa, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.7-8‡
- DopaPlus provides comprehensive support for dopamine synthesis. Key vitamins and minerals (folate, vitamin B6 and zinc) serve as essential cofactors for the production and utilization of dopamine. L-tyrosine and Mucuna pruriens (a rich source of L-DOPA) provide necessary precursors for the synthesis of dopamine and other neurotransmitters. Herbal and polyphenol-rich extracts maintain healthy neurotransmitter reuptake.9-15‡
Product selection should consider other factors, such as nutrient status (refer to suggested monitoring below), appraisal of mental/cognitive function, and other relevant information obtained through patient evaluation.‡
Assessment & Monitoring:
No assessment methods are currently available for this SNP.
To Learn More:
The following databases provide abstracts of published studies, scholarly reviews and other types of articles with reliable, up-to-date information. To retrieve all relevant published studies on DRD2, enter the accession number (rs6277) in the search field. Full text articles are available in open-access journals only.
Google Scholar: scholar.google.com
PureGenomics® is a platform combining educational tools, protocols, core products, and E-script—our electronic prescription and protocol building service—with PureGenomics.com, our dynamic, practitioner-exclusive website application. PureGenomics.com is designed to help identify common genetic variations known as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that are clinically relevant and nutritionally actionable.‡
This unique platform makes it easy to TEST, TRANSLATE and TARGET SNPs with the right nutritional support, empowering practitioners with precision and confidence in the pursuit of optimal health for every patient.‡
Learn how to successfully implement PureGenomics® in your practice today!
Learn more in the PureGenomics® Mental Health & Memory Protocol‡.
1. InterPro. Dopamine D2 receptor (IPR001922). EMBL-EBI.
2. Li SC, Papenberg G, Nagel IE, Preuschhof C, Schröder J, et al. Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Jan;34(1):358.e1-10.
3. Hirvonen MM, Lumme V, Hirvonen J, Pesonen U, Någren K, et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Jun 15;33(4):630-6.
4. Colzato LS, Steenbergen L, Sellaro R, Stock AK, Arning L, et al. Cortex. 2016 Sep;82:217-224
5. Gyurkovics M, Kotyuk E, Katonai ER, Horvath EZ, Vereczkei A, et al. Conscious Cogn. 2016 May;42:1-8. PubMed PMID: 26954487.
6. Colzato LS, van den Wildenberg WP, Hommel B. Neuropsychologia. 2013 Jun;51(7):1377-81.
7. Meyers S. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Feb;5(1):64-71.
8. Burn JH, Rand MJ. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1960 Mar; 15(1): 47–55.
9. Wichers HJ, Malingré TM, Huizing HJ. Planta. 1985 Nov;166(3):421-8.
10. Sawada T, Yokoi K. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar;64(3):331-3.
11. Stahl SM. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Sep;69(9):1352-3.
12. Merete C, Falcon LM, Tucker KL. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Jun; 27(3): 421–427.
13. Pan T, Fei J, Zhou X, et al. Life Sciences. 2003. 72(9); 1073-1083.
14. van Diermen D, Marston A, Bravo J, et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Mar 18;122(2):397-401.
15. Xu Y, Li S, Chen R, Li G, et al. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Jan;94(3):447-53.
16. Gomez-Pinilla F and Nguyen T. Natural mood foods: The actions of polyphenols against psychiatric and cognitive disorders. Nutr Neurosci. 2012 May; 15(3): 127–133.
17. Duman RS, Monteggia LM. A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jun 15;59(12):1116-27.
18. Murakami S, Imbe H, Morikawa Y, et al. Chronic stress, as well as acute stress, reduces BDNF mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus but less robustly. Neurosci Res. 2005 Oct;53(2):129-39.
19. Dal-Pan A, Dudonné S, Bourassa P, et al. Cognitive-Enhancing Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Fruits without Changes in Neuropathology in an Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;55(1):115-135.